Stucco Repair 101

Dryvit Stucco Installation is a straightforward procedure that brings most plaster surfaces back to their original condition. Inspect the stucco for cracks, holes, stains, mold or moss growth, soft spots, and impact damage.

Cover windows, doors, and other adjacent surfaces with plastic sheeting to avoid accidental splatters of stucco mix or other repair materials.

Stucco is one of the most durable and resilient building materials available, but it isn’t impervious to wear and tear. Cracking is a normal part of the lifespan of stucco and, in general, can be fixed fairly easily. However, the size of the crack and the reasons it formed should determine the approach taken for repair.

The most common type of cracking in stucco is hairline cracks less than 1/8 inch wide. While these cracks don’t necessarily impact the structure of a home, they do create paths for moisture to enter and cause damage like peeling paint, wood rot, mold, swollen drywall, and more. Hairline cracks can be repaired using a caulking material.

Larger cracks (1/4 inch and wider) and holes should be repaired using a premixed stucco patching product. Purchase the product from a local hardware store and follow the package instructions for mixing and application. This is not a job for a do-it-yourselfer but can be handled by a knowledgeable homeowner who understands the process and has the proper tools.

Before applying the patch:

  1. Use a putty knife or scratch awl to clean out loose debris in the cracks.
  2. Fill the cracks with high-quality caulking.
  3. Apply the patching with a rubber float in thin layers until you reach the level of the surrounding stucco.
  4. Use a wire-bristled brush to add texture to the patch to match the existing stucco.

If you’re repairing cracks that are larger than 1/4 inch, it’s best to have a professional assess the area and determine why the stucco cracked to prevent it from happening again in the future. A contractor can also advise on the best repair method for the cracks and help with color matching to ensure the patching looks natural.

In some cases, the cracks may be caused by climbing plants like vines. In this case, it’s important to remove the plants from the wall as soon as they turn yellow or brown and before they break apart in the wind or get blown away. Once the plant is gone, apply a fog coat or similar product to patch the area and blend it with the rest of the stucco.

Stucco is an attractive material for exterior walls. It provides insulation, is fire retardant, reduces outside noise, and lasts for decades when cared for properly. However, if your stucco walls develop holes, it’s important to fix them as soon as possible. Not only are holes unsightly, but they can lead to water damage and other issues. Fortunately, setting them is relatively simple.

Start by using a wire brush to clean the area around the hole. This will help to ensure the new patching materials will bond with the rest of the wall. You can purchase an automotive wire brush from any hardware store to do this task. After you’ve cleaned the surface, blow out the hole to remove any loose debris that could adversely affect the integrity of the patching materials.

The next step is to inspect the holes and determine if they need to be removed entirely or repaired. Loose stucco will bulge and feel spongey to the touch, while intact stucco will have a solid sound when struck. If your stucco is only partially open, you can try to re-attach it with a hammer and cold chisel, being careful not to damage the wood lath supports underneath.

If the holes are large, you may need to create a backing for the new patching material. This can be as simple as a piece of plywood for a single hole, or you may need wood for a larger wall section surrounding the holes. Once the backing is in place, wet the hole’s surface with a sponge for a small hole or a garden hose for a larger area. This will prevent the repair material from drying too quickly.

Once the hole is wet, mix a batch of stucco repair compound according to the instructions on the package. Then, apply the patch to the holes or cracks in the stucco wall with a putty knife or trowel, working the compound into the hole until it is smooth and matches the texture of the surrounding wall.

If you want to refrain from undertaking the project, a siding contractor can provide a professional service. These contractors will take the time to examine your home’s current structure and landscaping to avoid causing any damage during the installation process. They will also work to ensure any underlying issues are addressed before installing your new stucco, ensuring it will look its best for years to come.

Stucco resists mold, rot, and rodents, but it can still suffer damage from direct impacts. Small cracks and bald spots on the exterior are easy to patch with paintable caulk. Still, a good stucco repair professional should be hired for major damage or if the existing structure of your home has been compromised by moisture or critters.

Stuck-on debris like moss and plant growth can be removed with a wire brush or broom. Alternatively, you can use a power washer in a low-pressure setting. It’s important to avoid using too much pressure, as excessive force can cause structural damage to your home. Stucco surfaces should be cleaned at least twice a year to remove dirt buildup in the pores, which can lead to mold and mildew.

If the problem is a crack, widen it with a cold chisel or hand hammer, or rent an electric chipping hammer fitted with a masonry chisel bit. The chisel should not cut through the underlying stucco; fracture it. This allows the underlying wire mesh and building paper to remain undamaged. Pro Tip: When hammering on the surface of the crack, make sure your fracture lines meander; this makes it easier to disguise them with patch stucco later.

Depending on your needs, you may need to replace the metal mesh in the area of the damaged section. If you do, it’s best to use galvanized steel mesh that will withstand the elements. Measure the area that needs to be covered, then cut a piece of new mesh to size with metal snips.

Once the replacement mesh is in place, it’s a good idea to pull back the undamaged house wrap and felt paper to give yourself some room to work. Next, use tin snips to cut away the house wrap and felt around the damaged section of stucco. This should be done as close to the damaged stucco so that if water gets in behind the new tar paper, it will run out and away from the wood framing underneath.

Finally, it’s a good idea to install a weep screed along the base of your stucco wall, especially if you have a high water table or have had problems with standing water. The weep screed is a strip of cement along the bottom of your stucco wall that helps prevent water from pooling and seeping into cracks in the foundation or drywall.

Aside from cracks, a major sign of impending stucco failure is moisture. Moisture leads to mold and mildew, which destroy the underlying structure of your home. It can also cause unsightly stains and discoloration. It’s important to detect and repair water leaks as early as possible so that the damage doesn’t worsen. Look for damp spots around windows and doors, discolored or textured surfaces, peeling paint or wallpaper, and a musty smell indoors.

Leaks are usually caused by improper flashing and sealants rather than by the stucco. The best way to prevent them is to inspect the flashing regularly and replace deteriorated materials.

Check the roof eaves for adequate overhangs to protect the stucco from direct rainfall, and ensure that the flashing is installed properly at window sills and door heads. A well-installed flashing system includes pan flashing at the sill, Z-flashing with end dams at heads, and a water-resistant barrier on all penetrations into your home’s exterior walls.

Stucco can withstand moisture better than other materials, but even the most durable stucco needs regular maintenance to stay in good condition. It’s important to clean it regularly, at least twice a year, with a pressure washer or hose sprayer. This removes organic material that encourages fungal growth, as well as dirt and dust that can introduce cracks.

A good rule of thumb is to use paintable acrylic caulk to patch any developing fissures. If you notice significant damage or large holes, it’s always best to call a stucco pro.

Before patching, if necessary, use a pry bar or chisel to remove the damaged stucco and underlying lath, and be sure to leave some undamaged stucco in the repair area. Next, score the surface of the remaining stucco and remove any tin snips or house wrap from the area with a hammer or cold chisel. Mist the patch with water before applying the second coat. Wait seven days, then mist again after the patch loses its wet sheen.


What You Need to Know About Dock Construction

dock construction

A dock is a structure that supports boats, provides access to the water and serves as an area for other activities. Lake Wylie Dock Construction is very similar to building a deck, with the exception that at least part of the dock must be submerged in the water.

Dock piling materials matter a lot. Most use Southern yellow pine, a softwood that can splinter and rot in the water. Other options are concrete block anchors and tropical hardwoods.

When you live in an area where water levels rise and fall a lot (like Texas and Oklahoma), you’ll want to look at a steel dock option. These are designed with heavy duty hinges between the dock and walkway, more between each of the walkways and yet another set between the walkways and a base that’s concreted into the bank. This multi-hinge system allows your Floating Dock to float up or down with the water level and provide stability.

Unlike aluminum, steel docks can be built with a thicker wall thickness and corrosion resistant coatings to extend their lifespan. This durability and strength also make them ideal for docks that get a lot of use.

Steel docks require the support of steel pilings which are driven into the lake bed using our specialized equipment. This process ensures that the piles will be secured in place for a long lasting dock. In Muskoka, where the lakes are acidic, this means that the pile walls and supporting I-beams need to be extremely strong to withstand corrosion.

One of the reasons why our customers choose a steel dock is that it offers an unmatched level of strength and durability. This is largely due to the fact that steel dock pilings are chemically treated and not coated. This means that they can last for years and even decades before they need to be replaced. Because they’re less malleable than aluminum, this also means that their load capacity is greater.

A steel dock will be heavier than an aluminum boat dock but it’s worth the investment because of the added strength and durability. In addition, it takes up less space for storing in the off season and can be easily moved by a crane or trailer.

If you’re thinking about purchasing a new steel dock, be sure to talk to your supplier about the type of lakebed you’ll have and what kind of corrosion protection is recommended. It’s also important to understand the difference between the various types of dock pilings available and how they are installed.


The foundation for a floating dock is a steel or concrete piling, and it’s important to make sure the piles are well-anchored in the ground. Depending on the soil conditions, pilings can be set in place using a jet of water or by digging a hole and setting them in concrete footers. In either case, the pilings should be anchored securely to ensure that they don’t move or shift under load.

A concrete loading dock is a specialized platform designed to facilitate the transfer of cargo from vehicles to warehouses or other storage facilities. These structures are built with a variety of materials, including reinforced concrete, to ensure durability and strength. In addition, they are often equipped with various features such as bumpers and seals to reduce damage to the vehicle. However, improper loading can cause cracking and other damage to a concrete dock, which can lead to safety hazards for workers.

In conventional concrete dock construction, a precast slab is placed on top of a pile and pile cap. It is then secured to the piles and caps with a steel grating. This method allows the structure to be erected quickly and minimizes onsite construction time. However, it can be expensive and is not suitable for a small dock. Moreover, it can only support a limited number of vessels.

During Hurricane Irma, the wood deck of an existing concrete dock was destroyed and only the deteriorated concrete substructure remained. To fa- cilitate permitting through government agencies and limit envi- ronmental impact, the dock was replaced with an iDock comprised of piles, pile caps, and slabs carrying GFRP grating. The iDock’s design mimics the layout and footprint of the original dock, while providing a more durable and environmentally friendly structure.


A dock that’s built from wood can be both visually appealing and quite sturdy. The most popular material used for docks is pressure-treated southern yellow pine. This is a common choice because it’s affordable and fairly durable. It can easily withstand decades of exposure to water and sun. However, it’s important to choose a preservative that won’t impact the environment. Copper-based wood preservatives can have a negative impact on the ecosystem, especially if they’re released into the water.

Choosing the right location for your dock is also crucial. You want to make sure the structure isn’t too far out of the water and that it can support a boat when needed. Also, you’ll need to be able to walk out onto the dock from land. To make your dock more usable, you can include seating directly into the design by combining decking and bench frames.

Before you begin construction, gather the necessary materials and tools. Some essential supplies include pressure-treated lumber, galvanized hardware, and decking material. You should also have a tape measure, level, and safety equipment on hand. Using stakes, mark the desired outline of your dock and double-check the measurements. The frame of the dock should be built first to ensure that it will fit properly, then decking can be applied.

When building a wooden dock, it’s a good idea to mark pencil lines for where fasteners should be driven. This will help ensure that all of the screws and nails are driven a consistent distance from the ends and edges of the boards. It’s a simple step that can save you time and frustration in the long run.

If you’re constructing a permanent dock, it’s a good idea for it to have concrete anchors. These will ensure that the dock doesn’t move around in windy or wavy conditions. To install them, screw two large eye bolts into the land-side of the dock and attach a galvanized steel cable to each one. The cable can then be connected to a concrete anchor, which should weigh at least 150 pounds or more.


Choosing the right materials is crucial when building your dock. The materials used can impact how long your dock lasts and how easy it is to maintain over time. It is best to choose high-quality materials that are resistant to rot, corrosion and wear. This will reduce the cost of repair and replacement and keep your dock in good condition for longer. The right materials can also make your dock more aesthetically appealing and comfortable to use. The water conditions where you will be building your dock will also influence the type of materials you will use. Some water types are prone to flooding, silt and sand while others have rock, clay or concrete floors. Your contractor will be familiar with the local water conditions and can advise you on the best materials to build your dock with.

Aluminum is a highly durable material that won’t rust or corrode like metals such as steel, making it an excellent choice for dock construction. It can withstand a variety of environmental conditions and is stronger than wood. In addition, aluminum won’t attract bugs or soak in water like wood does, which can rot and swell the structure. The durability of aluminum can help to extend the life of your dock by reducing the amount of maintenance needed.

The strength of an aluminum dock is determined by its alloy and thickness. It is important to select an aluminum dock kit with quality components from a reputable manufacturer. The kit should have everything you need to construct a floating dock including detailed instructions and all required hardware. This will ensure that the assembly process is simple and efficient.

Before beginning construction, it is important to measure the location of your dock to determine the size and layout. It is also important to take the water depth, hazards and access into consideration. Once you have the measurements, you can begin to construct the frame of the dock using pressure-treated lumber or other decking material and galvanized or marine-grade stainless steel screws or bolts.

There are two main ways to build an aluminum dock: welded and non-welded. The welded method is the most common, but it can be noisy and may leak in some cases. The non-welded method involves inserting an outdoor rated sub-floor adhesive into the hinged section of the deck board to create a solid, quiet connection. Some higher-end manufacturers, such as Alumi-Span, offer this option for their dock sections. This can make your aluminum dock much quieter to walk on and reduce the number of metal-to-metal contact points.

Electrical Services

Preventing Post-Disaster Excavation Accidents

Archaeological material tends to accumulate in events. Someone sweeps a pile of dirt into a corner, puts a path in gravel, or plants a bush. Those actions create layers that can be interpreted and understood.

Construction workers must be aware of how the materials they choose can increase or decrease the resilience of a scenic spot to future disasters. This will require them to look at material selection on three fundamental levels. Click to learn more,


Trench cave-ins are one of the most serious hazards associated with excavation work. These incidents can crush workers, leading to traumatic brain injuries and other fatal conditions. Workers can also be exposed to hazardous gases, electrocution, and flooding. Taking precautions can reduce the risk of these incidents occurring.

Unstable soil is one of the main reasons for cave-ins during excavation. It can be difficult to determine the strength of an excavation site before beginning trench work, and the ground must be stabilized to prevent collapse. Protective systems or equipment must be used when workers are more than five feet deep in trenches. This equipment includes trench boxes and shielding, which helps keep walls from collapsing on workers.

The type of protective system used will depend on the excavation site and soil conditions. Sloping and benching are two of the most common methods for stabilizing trenches. The latter involves cutting back the excavation wall at an inclined angle away from the work area. This method requires expert knowledge and a thorough inspection of the soil conditions to ensure proper installation.

Keeping loose materials and equipment at least two feet from the edge of trenches is another way to reduce cave-in risks. In addition, workers must be aware of all utility lines near the site and keep them clear to avoid hitting them. Hitting a line can cause accidental fires, electrocution, sudden flooding, and exposure to hazardous gasses.

Providing ladders or other means to emerge from the trench is a crucial safety measure. Workers should be able to exit the trench quickly in an emergency, and the safest route out of the hole should be well-marked. Workers should also be trained to identify potential safety hazards and understand the proper excavation procedures. This training can help prevent accidents that could lead to injuries and death.

Steep terrain and rugged ground conditions increase excavation costs due to the need to bring heavy equipment to work on the site. This can also raise labor costs, as workers will have to spend more time on the project and may need to take more breaks due to the difficult terrain. A high percentage of cut and fill can also influence overall excavation costs, forcing the team to find elsewhere to dump the waste, which may require bringing dirt from another area.

Before beginning any digging, contact 8-1-1 to have underground utility lines marked for free. This can prevent injury, damage, and monetary fines.

The first step is to identify potential hazards. These can be anything from the depth of an excavation to the presence of services (e.g., electricity, gas, water, or telecommunications).

Check the stability of structures near the work site. Ensure the excavation is not in the zone of influence for any existing structure where the soil could cause collapse. Depending on the site, this may require soil testing or the assessment of the strength and density of the material.

Ensure that the competent person is aware of all possible risks and has adequate knowledge, training, and experience to manage the temporary works safely. This may include specialized knowledge and skills for specific temporary work disciplines.

Suppose there are any existing structures within proximity of an excavation. In that case, the PCBU should consult the structure’s owner or the relevant authorities to see if it is safe for the excavation work to continue. If the structures are found to be unstable or in danger of failing, they should either be removed or modified before excavation works start.

In a post-disaster excavation, there is a risk of collapse or engulfment. This can occur due to a sudden change in ground conditions such as changes in the water table, flooding, or soil liquefaction. It can also happen if the excavation needs to be adequately sheeted or supported. Ensure the shoring is adequate and that there are frequent checks of the condition of the shoring and excavated face for signs of earth fretting, slipping, or slumping.

Ensure the PCBU has a plan to stop work and isolate power lines or underground electrical cables when they are in danger of being exposed during excavation work. The plan should also detail how the work will be re-established when it is safe.

Is the excavation site fenced and guarded to keep people away from the dangerous areas? Is a dewatering system in place to remove any standing water? Is a suitable ladder and safety rail in place to allow workers to safely enter and exit the excavation? Is the air in the area tested for oxygen levels and hazardous gases or fumes?

Excavation work carries significant risks that demand attention, proper planning, and diligent safety practices. Ignoring these safety measures can be deadly for workers and their loved ones. It can also lead to significant financial losses, multimillion-dollar lawsuits, and damage to a company’s reputation.

Among the most serious excavation safety hazards are utility lines. These lines can pose various threats, including electrocution and natural gas leaks. They can be hidden in mud or debris and may not have markings to identify them. Also, they might be close to the surface and can be exposed to ground collapse. To protect workers from these risks, PCBUs should have systems in place to assess and manage the location of underground services before starting work. They should also provide the details of any identified services to other people involved, such as PCBUs, emergency service authorities, and mobile plant operators.

Other important excavation safety measures include ensuring workers can enter and exit trenches safely. This involves installing ladders, stairways, or ramps in all four-foot-deep trenches. PCBUs should also provide a standby person with communication equipment to monitor the situation and alert workers to dangers, such as cave-ins.

In addition, a competent person should inspect the excavation each day before starting work and after any event that could affect its stability. In addition, workers should be trained to recognize and respond to the signs of an impending collapse. Finally, workers should have protective equipment, including hard hats, hearing protection, and respirators.

Despite the dangers of excavation work, some misconceptions exist about what is needed for excavation safety. For example, believing that weather conditions do not impact soil stability can lead to collapses and failures. Also, thinking that shoring is only necessary for deep excavations can lead to unexpected failures in shallower trenches. These misperceptions can lead to a false sense of security and complacency, which is why it is important to understand what risks exist and the importance of adhering to strict standards.


Rock Solid Tips For A Unique Home Improvement Project

Home improvement encompasses many approaches and methodologies. So too, does it encompass many different mindsets. The tips that you will find below, most certainly, reflect that diversity. They will, however, prove an effective inspiration in getting you on your way towards attaining that home of your dreams.

When selecting a contractor for a home renovation, don’t be tempted to simply take the lowest estimate. There is no guarantee that it will be cheaper to use a lower-cost contractor and simply fix any poor work later. Lower prices usually mean that the quality of the work and the materials is also lower.

When remodeling your kitchen, decide whether you really need enclosed cabinetry. Cabinets are often one of the most expensive pieces of kitchen remodeling, and you can save money by choosing open shelving instead. Shelves give you instant access to your cooking utensils, serving dishes, and ingredients. It’s a great idea for casual kitchens that get a lot of use.

Two-liter bottles can provide excellent storage solutions in the kitchen. They are see-through and will protect practically any kind of dry goods such as corn meal, flour, or sugar. You can keep them on a shelf, in the refrigerator, or even in the freezer. Just unscrew the cap and pour what you need, when you need it.

Replace doorknobs and drawer knobs. These small changes can perk up furniture that you already have and are less expensive than buying a new door or a new set of drawers. Doorknobs and drawer knobs can be bought in a variety of styles and colors, so it’s easy to add a little pizazz with just a little bit of money.

As has been noted above, home improvement means different things to different people. Sometimes, all that is needed to help us cement our ideals and to put in place a plan of attack is a tip or two. This article provides those tips. It will help you to overcome that feeling of being overwhelmed and get you started in accomplishing real goals.

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What Is Industrial Construction?

J&R Construction creates complex and specialized facilities for manufacturing or transporting products or materials. From factories to power plants, these structures often take up large plots of land and require extensive planning to ensure they meet specific guidelines.


The research team defines Detailed information needs based on findings from industry practice, tools, and mini-case studies. These unbiased definitions represent an advance to the body of knowledge.

Unlike commercial construction, which is more of a general term used to describe constructing facilities like offices, hospitals, and stores, industrial construction focuses on the design and building of structures that house a company’s manufacturing process. Typically, industrial buildings require larger plots of land because they need space for heavy machinery and all the technical components that make up their manufacturing process. Additionally, they need to be strategically located away from residential areas.

These types of buildings are often found on the outskirts of towns or cities. They are also designed with effective floor plans that provide easy access to machinery and all other equipment required to produce products and materials. The infrastructure of these kinds of buildings includes plumbing, electrical and heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. Depending on the type of business, they may also need around-the-clock shipping and receiving capabilities.

On the other hand, commercial buildings are built for people and usually have an aesthetic design meant to attract customers. These buildings are primarily designed to meet customer demands, so they have to be conveniently located. Moreover, these buildings must have enough space to accommodate everyone who wants to go inside the facility simultaneously. Therefore, they need to have wider corridors, oversized doors, and high ceilings.

Companies in this industry produce products that other businesses consume, so they are usually required to follow more stringent governmental regulations. That translates to more paperwork and inspections from different agencies. As such, it’s important to choose an experienced contractor who understands all the complexities of this type of construction.

When it comes to industrial construction, a well-thought-out workflow can save time and money. That is because a good workflow allows you to streamline the project’s process and ensures all necessary steps are taken. It can also reduce the need for supervision and increase efficiency. In addition, it can help you stay organized and avoid costly mistakes.

A construction workflow system should provide a real-time communication platform and allow you to upload documents. That will make it easier for your team to access the necessary information. It will also help you reduce the number of emails and phone calls you receive. Additionally, it should have the ability to track revisions. That will prevent duplication of files and allow you to manage the revisions more easily.

Whether working on a large industrial construction project or a smaller residential one, it is important to have a clear and efficient communication process. That will help you to avoid any mistakes or delays in your project. Additionally, it will help you keep everyone on the same page and ensure that all your team members have access to the information they need.

A good construction workflow should provide an accurate schedule of the work to be completed and the materials needed. It should also allow for a review of the program by all parties involved in the project. A construction management software solution that can handle multiple projects is essential to ensure your project runs smoothly.

Another essential feature of a construction workflow is the ability to monitor and track all project costs. That will help you stay on track with your budget and avoid unexpected expenses. It will also help you identify potential issues before they arise and make changes to improve your project.

Another way to improve your construction workflow is by implementing a maintenance workflow. That will ensure that all your equipment and machinery are in good condition. It will also help you minimize downtime and ensure that all of your projects are delivered on time.

Industrial construction focuses on building or renovating facilities used for manufacturing, distribution, storage, and other purposes related to producing goods. This type of construction can include everything from factories to power plants. It can also involve the construction of specialized buildings like warehouses, which may require special infrastructure to support heavy equipment and other specialized operations. The design of industrial buildings is centered around functionality rather than aesthetics. These structures must be able to meet specific requirements and guidelines set forth by government agencies.

In addition to meeting the standards of governing bodies, industrial construction also requires compliance with regulations regarding environmental safety and other guidelines set by law. These buildings often have large machines that could cause harm if improperly operated. Site planning teams for these buildings consider this when developing their plans for the project.

While commercial construction focuses on a goal similar to industrial projects, they operate on a much smaller scale. Consumer access is the primary concern for commercial projects like retail stores. They need to provide easy access for consumers and keep them moving throughout the space without getting lost. Industrial buildings must meet unique conveyance requirements, including round-the-clock shipping and receiving. They must also have nearby air or railroad transportation accessible to facilitate the delivery of raw materials and finished products to customers.

Regarding infrastructure, industrial projects must feature robust electrical and plumbing systems that can handle the heavy machinery used in these settings. These systems must be able to operate under demanding conditions and comply with strict guidelines for both safety and efficiency. In contrast, commercial buildings rely on a less-rigid infrastructure, such as HVAC and plumbing, that run to various parts of the building so tenants can use them as needed. They must be able to serve the needs of the businesses and their employees and offer comfort for those who work there. That makes the two styles of construction vastly different from one another. A skilled construction team will understand the differences and know how to construct a safe and functional building for either type of operation.

Safety is an essential component of industrial construction. This requires the application of best practices and high-tech safety equipment. It is also important to train employees to use these tools properly. This is especially vital for dangerous components such as chemicals and explosives. This can help to reduce accidents and injuries on the worksite.

It is difficult to achieve a completely safe workplace, but it is important to minimize the risks. The construction industry should implement general safety precautions and rules, such as warning signs to alert workers of any dangers or requiring them to wear protective gear. It is also important to inspect the condition of equipment and machines regularly. This can help prevent accidents and ensure that all equipment is working properly.

Construction sites can have multiple hazards, such as falling from heights and electrical hazards. In addition, there is often heavy machinery on site, which can pose a risk to the health and well-being of workers. Employees should be trained to operate these machines and follow all the applicable guidelines. Additionally, employers should provide adequate fall protection systems and ensure that all electrical devices are tagged to prevent overloading or short circuits.

Industrialized construction applies production processes and technologies from the manufacturing sector to the construction industry to improve key project objectives of time, cost, quality, environment, and safety (Lewicki Citation, 1966). Several approaches have been developed to industrialize construction, including offsite production (OSP) (Nadim and Goulding Citation2011), prefabrication (Steinhardt et al. Citation2013a), and modern methods of construction (MMC) (Rahman Citation2014).

During the COVID-19 pandemic, industrial construction companies followed a variety of infection prevention and control (IPC) protocols to limit the spread of COVID-19 among staff and contractors. These included social distancing, isolation and quarantine, PPE requirements, and cleaning and sanitizing protocols. This paper discusses the rationale and practices for these protocols and associated cost & schedule impacts. It also demonstrates how these protocols can be applied to an existing industrial process plant, such as Dow Louisiana facilities, in the spring and summer of 2020.